Fri Mar 15, 2019 | 9800 Words | 大约需要阅读 20 分钟 |
———— Joel Charon 《Ten Questions： A Sociological Perspective》
此书直译为中文是：《开放组织领域指南》，是社区根据Jim Whitehurst 关于未来的工作、管理和领导力的构思加工而成。该书收集了一些非常先进的理念，有关开源之道的价值如何改变我们的工作、管理和领导力。
What if we could build classrooms, departments, or entire educational institutions on the same values that power open source communities? What if we let open organization principles—like transparency, inclusivity, adaptability, collaboration, and community—guide our experiments in transforming education? How might that change the ways educators prepare students for life in an increasingly open world? In The Open Organization Guide for Educators, more than two dozen advocates for open education explore these important questions.
In Organize for Innovation, Red Hat President and CEO Jim Whitehurst reflects on the technological, social, and economic forces impacting the ways we work. Arguing that solving contemporary business problems requires new organizational principles, models, and dynamics, Whitehurst explains how leaders everywhere can begin rethinking how they utilize data, approach failure, structure teams, and set goals—in short, how they can become more innovative.
Democratizing Innovation ,Eric von Hippel,
作者：Eric von Hippel，麻省理工学院斯隆管理学院的T. Wilson（1953年）技术创新教授，是自由，开放和分布式创新的经济学和管理学的领先研究学者。
Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology， Henry William Chesbrough ，Harvard Business Review Press; First Trade Paper edition (1 April 2003)
In today’s information-rich environment, companies can no longer afford to rely entirely on their own ideas to advance their business, nor can they restrict their innovations to a single path to market. As a result, says Harvard Business School professor Henry W. Chesbrough, the traditional model for innovation - which has been largely internally focused, closed off from outside ideas and technologies - is becoming obsolete. Emerging in its place is a new paradigm, ‘open innovation’, which strategically leverages internal and external sources of ideas and takes them to market through multiple paths. This path-breaking analysis is based on extensive field research, academic study, and the author’s own longtime experience working in Silicon Valley.Through rich descriptions of the innovation processes of Xerox, IBM, Lucent, Intel, Merck, and Millennium, and the many spin-offs that have emerged from these firms, “Open Innovation” shows how companies can use their business model to identify a more enlightened role for R&D in a world of abundant information, better manage and access intellectual property, advance their current business, and grow their future business.
Arguing that companies in all industries must transform the way they commercialize knowledge, Chesbrough convincingly shows how open innovation can unlock the latent economic value in a company’s ideas and technologies. Author Bio: Henry W. Chesbrough is an Assistant Professor and the Class of 1961 Fellow at Harvard Business School.
Henry Chesbrough is an Assistant Professor of Technology and Operations Management at Harvard Business School.
Open Innovation Results: Going Beyond the Hype and Getting Down to Business
We live in an age of exponential technology, but this is not so new. Indeed, technological innovation has been promoted so assiduously for so long that there is now a discernible pattern to its emergence known as the Gartner Hype Cycle. Open innovation is no exception. In this book Henry Chesbrough, the originator of open innovation, examines the hype behind its practice, shows where real results are taking place, and explains how companies can move beyond the hype to achieve real business results.
The book begins with an exponential paradox; new technologies are emerging at an accelerating rate, yet we continue to see stagnant wages and lagging production. These realities are hard to reconcile with the promise of exponential technologies. A closer look suggests that exponential advocates are paying too little attention to the broad dissemination and absorption of a new technology before it delivers real profit and social benefit.
To get valuable results from innovation, businesses must open up their innovation processes and finish more of what they start. They need to open their knowledge flows to generate new growth, and unused internal knowledge must flow openly to others to generate new revenue and future business opportunities. Many of the best known aspects of open innovation such as crowdsourcing, open source software, or innovation intermediaries are often not well connected to the rest of the organization. Using numerous real-world examples of these methods in practice, Chesbrough illustrates how they can, and must, be used in connection to the organization as a whole in order to have real long-term value.
Open Innovation Results offers a clear-eyed view of the challenges and realities that limit the ability of organizations to create and profit from innovation. Whether in the largest companies or in a small business, an advanced economy or a rural village, this book charts a course to enhance organizational growth and performance.
Henry Chesbrough, Adjunct Professor and Faculty Director of the Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley
Henry Chesbrough is Adjunct Professor and Faculty Director of the Garwood Center for Corporate Innovation at UC Berkeley’s Haas School of Business. He is also the LUISS Chair Professor of Open Innovation at LUISS University in Rome. He is the author of several management books on innovation: Open Services Innovation (Jossey-Bass, 2011), Open Business Models (Harvard Business School Press, 2006), and Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, 2003). He has won numerous awards for his work, including two honorary doctorates, the IRI Medal of Achievement, and the Innovation Luminary award from the European Commission. He has been named in the Thinkers 50 list of top management thinkers four successive times, and recognized as one of the top 50 business and technology leaders by Scientific American.
Amazone 链接：Open Innovation Results
2003年 Henry Chesbrough提出了开放式创新的概念，2020年，然后用一些事实结果来验证当初的提法，17年，除了开源的崛起之外，还有什么？
Free Innovation,Eric von Hippel,November 2016， MIT Press
A leading innovation scholar explains the growing phenomenon and impact of free innovation, in which innovations developed by consumers and given away “for free.”
In this book, Eric von Hippel, author of the influential Democratizing Innovation, integrates new theory and research findings into the framework of a “free innovation paradigm.” Free innovation, as he defines it, involves innovations developed by consumers who are self-rewarded for their efforts, and who give their designs away “for free.” It is an inherently simple grassroots innovation process, unencumbered by compensated transactions and intellectual property rights.
Free innovation is already widespread in national economies and is steadily increasing in both scale and scope. Today, tens of millions of consumers are collectively spending tens of billions of dollars annually on innovation development. However, because free innovations are developed during consumers’ unpaid, discretionary time and are given away rather than sold, their collective impact and value have until very recently been hidden from view. This has caused researchers, governments, and firms to focus too much on the Schumpeterian idea of innovation as a producer-dominated activity.
Free innovation has both advantages and drawbacks. Because free innovators are self-rewarded by such factors as personal utility, learning, and fun, they often pioneer new areas before producers see commercial potential. At the same time, because they give away their innovations, free innovators generally have very little incentive to invest in diffusing what they create, which reduces the social value of their efforts.
The best solution, von Hippel and his colleagues argue, is a division of labor between free innovators and producers, enabling each to do what they do best. The result will be both increased producer profits and increased social welfare—a gain for all.
The Hacker Ethic: A Radical Approach to the Philosophy of Business (English Edition)
You may be a hacker and not even know it. Being a hacker has nothing to do with cyberterrorism, and it doesn’t even necessarily relate to the open-source movement. Being a hacker has more to do with your underlying assumptions about stress, time management, work, and play. It’s about harmonizing the rhythms of your creative work with the rhythms of the rest of your life so that they amplify each other. It is a fundamentally new work ethic that is revolutionizing the way business is being done around the world.
Without hackers there would be no universal access to e-mail, no Internet, no World Wide Web, but the hacker ethic has spread far beyond the world of computers. It is a mind-set, a philosophy, based on the values of play, passion, sharing, and creativity, that has the potential to enhance every individual’s and company’s productivity and competitiveness. Now there is a greater need than ever for entrepreneurial versatility of the sort that has made hackers the most important innovators of our day. Pekka Himanen shows how we all can make use of this ongoing transformation in the way we approach our working lives.
Milestones: The Story of WordPress
*Milestones: The Story of WordPress*, a book on the history and development of WordPress. They have been carried out with people involved with the WordPress project from its inception over fifteen years ago, and those who have been instrumental in shaping WordPress itself, the wider project, and the community.
中文版：《开源的成功之路》， 史蒂文 ，外研社·哈佛科学人文译丛，2007.6
英文版: The Success of Open Source,Steven Weber ,Harvard University Press ,2004
英文版： Internet Success: A Study of Open-Source Software Commons，Charles M. Schweik and Robert C. English， Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online，2012
The use of open-source software (OSS)—readable software source code that can be copied, modified, and distributed freely—has expanded dramatically in recent years. The number of OSS projects hosted on SourceForge.net (the largest hosting Web site for OSS), for example, grew from just over 100,000 in 2006 to more than 250,000 at the beginning of 2011. But why are some projects successful—that is, able to produce usable software and sustain ongoing development over time—while others are abandoned? This book, the product of a large-scale empirical study to look at social, technical, and institutional aspects of OSS, examines factors that lead to success in OSS projects and work toward a better understanding of Internet-based collaboration. Drawing on literature from many disciplines and using a theoretical framework developed for the study of environmental commons, it examines stages of OSS development, presenting multivariate statistical models of success and abandonment. The authors argue that analyzing the conditions of OSS successes may also inform Internet collaborations in fields beyond software engineering, particularly those which aim to solve complex technical, social, and political problems.
Open Sources 2.0 : the continuing evolution
Open Sources 2.0是由O’Reilly Media出版的一本书。继“开源：来自开源革命的声音”的流行之后，这是由开源和自由软件运动的名人撰写的第二篇论文集。这些文章探讨了开源对软件行业的影响，并揭示了开源概念如何渗透到商业和社会的其他领域。
[THE OPEN REVOLUTION]()
作者：Dr Rufus Pollock
Forget everything you think you know about the digital age. It’s not about privacy, surveillance, AI or blockchain—it’s about ownership. Because, in a digital age, who owns information controls the future.
In this urgent and provocative book, Rufus Pollock shows how today’s “Closed” digital economy is the source of problems ranging from growing inequality, to unaffordable medicines, to the power of a handful of tech monopolies to control how we think and vote. He proposes a solution that charts a path to a more equitable, innovative and profitable future for all.
英文版：Open Source for Business: A Practical Guide to Open Source Software Licensing, 2nd Edition ， Heather Meeker 著
Intellectual Property and Open Source， O’Reilly Media, Inc,，Van Lindberg 著， (2008年7月29日)
英文版：The International Free and Open Source Software Law Book, 开源出版, Ywein Van den Brande, Shane Coughlan, 和 Till Jaeger 合著(2014)
The Open Source Way
This book provides an introduction to creating and nurturing communities of contributors. This is a core part of Red Hat’s mission, as manifested in the many communities where Red Hat is an active contributor.
Red Hat employs contributors who work directly in upstream development on all parts of the open source architecture stack, from the Linux kernel to the thinnest skin of Ajax4Jsf. How these people interact with their communities is the first part of how Red Hat influences the growth of community.
The qualities of the interaction of each individual contributor are as different as any human-to-human interaction. Over the course of time, these many interactions distill to a set of guiding principles that help us with the community growth and nurturing.
Red Hat has collective community wisdom.
We also have particular skill and luck in being thought and action leaders in many open communities. It has all been done in an open, ad hoc fashion, and it hasn’t been written down before.
So this book is a capturing of that distilled knowledge. It is also an active document, as that knowledge grows and changes, so do the contents of this book.
作者：RedHat Community Architecture
图书线上资源：The open source way
The open source way is a way of thinking about how people collaborate within a community to achieve common goals and interests.
The Art of Community: Seven Principles for Belonging
Strong cultures help people support one another, share their passions, and achieve big goals.
And such cultures of belonging aren’t just happy accidents — they can be purposefully cultivated, whether they’re in a company, a faith institution or among friends and enthusiasts. Drawing on 3,000 years of history and his personal experience, Charles Vogl lays out seven time-tested principles for growing enduring, effective and connected communities. He provides hands-on tools for creatively adapting these principles to any group — formal or informal, mission driven or social, physical or virtual.
This book is a guide for leaders seeking to build a vibrant, living culture that will enrich lives.
Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge
Etienne Wenger-Trayner (formerly Wenger) is a globally recognized thought leader in the field of social learning theory, communities of practice, and their application to organizations. He has authored and co-authored seminal articles and books on the topic, including Situated Learning, where the term “community of practice” was coined; Communities of Practice: learning, meaning, and identity, where he lays out a theory of learning based on the concept; Cultivating Communities of Practice, addressed to practitioners in organizations who want to base their knowledge strategy on communities of practice; and Digital Habitats, which tackles issues of technology. Etienne’s work is influencing both theory and practice in a range of disciplines, as well as a growing number of organizations in the private and public sectors. He helps organizations apply his ideas through consulting, public speaking, and workshops. He is also active in the academic sphere. He regularly speaks at conferences, conducts seminars, and is a visiting professor at the universities of Manchester and Aalborg. He recently received an honorary doctorate from the university of Brighton.
Today’s economy is fueled by knowledge. Every leader knows this to be true, yet few have systematic methods for converting organizational knowledge into economic value. This book argues that communities of practice–groups of individuals formed around common interests and expertise–provide the ideal vehicle for driving knowledge-management strategies and building lasting competitive advantage. Written by leading experts in the field, Cultivating Communities of Practice is the first book to outline models and methods for systematically developing these essential groups. Through compelling research and company examples, including DaimlerChrysler, McKinsey & Company, Shell, and the World Bank, authors Etienne Wenger, Richard McDermott, and William M. Snyder show how world-class organizations have leveraged communities of practice to drive strategy, generate new business opportunities, solve problems, transfer best practices, develop employees’ professional skills, and recruit and retain top talent. Underscoring the new central role communities of practice are playing in today’s knowledge economy, Cultivating Communities of Practice is the definitive guide to fostering, designing, and developing these powerful groups within and across organizations.
The Business Value of Developer Relations: How and Why Technical Communities Are Key To Your Success
Discover the true value of Developer Relations as you learn to build and maintain positive relationships with your developer community. Use the principles laid out in this book to walk through your company goals and discover how you can formulate a plan tailored to your specific needs.
First you will understand the value of a technical community: why you need to foster a community and how to do it. Then you will learn how to be involved in community building on a daily basis: finding the right audience, walking the tightrope between representing the company and building a personal brand, in-person events, and more.
Featuring interviews with Developer Relations professionals from many successful companies including Red Hat, Google, Chef, Docker, Mozilla, SparkPost, Heroku, Twilio, CoreOS, and more, and with a foreword by Jono Bacon, The Business Value of Developer Relations is the perfect book for anyone who is working in the tech industry and wants to understand where DevRel is now and how to get involved. Don’t get left behind – join the community today.
What You’ll Learn
- Define community and sell community to your company
- Find, build, and engage with the community
- Determine how and when to hire community managers
- Build your own personal brand
Who This Book Is For
Any business leaders/owners/stakeholders in the tech industry, tech evangelists, community managers or developer advocates.
Mary Thengvall is a connector of people at heart, both personally and professionally. She loves digging into the strategy of how to build and foster developer communities and has been doing so for over 10 years. After building community programs at O’Reilly Media, Chef Software, and SparkPost, she’s now consulting for companies looking to build out a Developer Relations strategy. She’s the author of the first book on Developer Relations: The Business Value of Developer Relations (Apress, 2018).
Mary is a co-host of Community Pulse, a podcast for community managers and developer evangelists who are looking for information on community building. She curates DevRel Weekly, a weekly newsletter that brings you a curated list of articles, job postings, and events every Thursday.
She is also a member of Prompt, a non-profit that encourages people to openly talk about mental illness in tech. She speaks at various conferences and events about building and fostering technical communities as well as how to prevent burnout in yourself and your team.
She can be found on Twitter @mary_grace.
该书的立场是商业公司如何处理开发者社团，以及如何处理之间的关系，尤其是开源共同体方面的经验，作者采访了大量和开发者口碑超佳的公司：Google、RedHat、Mozilla、heroku……等，《the art of community》作者Jono bacon 作序！你能错过吗？
本书来自2019年共读的活跃贡献者，也是共读的主要推荐人之一 ———— 姜宁先生的隆重推荐。
Forge Your Future with Open Source,VM (Vicky) Brasseur
Free and open source is the foundation of software development, and it’s built by people just like you. Discover the fundamental tenets that drive the movement. Take control of your career by selecting the right project to meet your professional goals. Master the language and avoid the pitfalls that typically ensnare new contributors. Join a community of like-minded people and change the world. Programmers, writers, designers, and everyone interested in software will make their mark through free and open source software contributions.
This book doesn’t assume that you’re a programmer, or even that you have prior experience with free and open source software. Learn what open source is, where it came from, and why it’s important. Start on the right foot by mastering the structure and tools you need before you contribute. Choose the right project for you, amplifying the impact of your contribution. Submit your first contribution, whether it’s code, writing, design, or community organizing. Find out what to do when things don’t go the way you expect. Discover how to start your own project and make it friendly and welcoming to contributors.
Anyone can contribute! Make your mark today and help others while also helping yourself.
People Powered: How Communities Can Supercharge Your Business, Brand, and Teams
What if you discovered a blueprint that could grow your brand’s reputation and loyalty, dramatically reduce customer service issues, produce content and technology, and cement a powerful, lasting relationship between you and your customers?
Communities have been a popular topic since the rise of the Internet and social media, but few companies have consistently harnessed their power, driven tangible value, and effectively measured their return on investment (ROI) like:
- Salesforce.com has seen tremendous results with their community network of over 2 million members advocating for, supporting, and integrating Salesforce.com products
- Star Citizen used Kickstarter to raise over $150 million to build their new video game and a community of over 2 million players.
- Red Hat collaborated with their community to build industry-leading technology, which led to a $34 billion acquisition by IBM
- Companies such as PayPal, Facebook, Bosch, Microsoft, CapitalOne, and Google, have also built communities inside their organizations, which have fostered innovation, broken down silos, and helped their organizations to operate more efficiently and collaboratively.
People Powered helps C-suite leaders, founders, marketers, customer advocates, and community leaders gain a competitive advantage by answering the following questions:
- What is the key value proposition of building a community?
- What kind of community do we need and how do we build and integrate it into our organization?
- How do we incentivize and encourage people to get involved, build reliable growth, and keep community members engaged?
- How do we develop authentic, productive relationships with community members both online and in person?
- How do we get departmental buy-in, hire effectively, and create consistent, reliable community engagement skills in our organization?
- What are the strategic and tactical pitfalls and roadblocks we need to avoid?
- How do we make sure that our community continues to grow with us—and more importantly, how do we make sure that we continue to grow with them?
People Powered pulls together over 20 years of pragmatic experience into a clear, simple methodology and blueprint to not just answer these questions, but deliver results. It also includes contributions from industry leaders including Joseph Gordon-Levitt (Emmy-award winning actor), Peter H. Diamandis (Founder of XPRIZE, Singularity University), Jim Zemlin (Executive Director, The Linux Foundation), Mike Shinoda (Co-Founder, Linkin Park), Jim Whitehurst (CEO, Red Hat), and more.
Don’t get left behind—become an industry trailblazer and ensure your company’s longevity by tapping into the most dynamic force both outside and inside your organization: the people.
Communities Dominate Brands
Communities Dominate Brands: Business and marketing challenges for the 21st century is a book about how the new phenomenon of digitally connected communities are emerging as a force to counterbalance the power of the big brands and advertising. The book explores the problems faced by branding, marketing and advertising facing multiple radical changes in this decade. Communities Dominate Brands discusses how disruptive effects of digitalisation and connectedness introduce threats and opportunities. The authors compellingly illustrate how modern consumers are forming communities and peer-groups to pool their power resulting in a dramatic revolution of how businesses interact with their customers. The book provides practical guidance of how to move from obsolete interruptive advertising to interactive engagement marketing and community based communications, with dozens of real business examples from around the world. Communities Dominate Brands addresses its topic from a marketing (including advertising and branding) perspective and maintains a rigorous focus on business and profit dimensions of the issues involved. The book discusses such recent phenomena as blogging, virtual environments, mobile phone based swarming and massively multiplayer games. The book introduces a new generation of consumers called Generation-C (for Community). The book also discusses such new concepts as the Connected Age, Reachability, the Four C’s, Alpha Users, and introduces Communities as an unavoidable new element into the traditional communication model. Combining the digital trends, modern management theories, and emerging new customer behaviour, Communities Dominate Brands arrives to its conclusion, that traditional marketing methods are increasingly ineffective and even becoming counterproductive. The power of the brands and the abuses by marketing have created a vacuum for a counterbalance, and digitally connected communities, the blogosphere, gamers, and especially the always-on connectedness of those on mobile phone networks, are emerging as the counterforce to redress the balance. The power of smart mobs and digitally enlightened communities will react rapidly to marketing excesses as the natural force balancing the power of the brands. The way a business can and must interact with the powerful new communities is through engagement marketing, by enticing the communities to interact with the brands. Communities Dominate Brands covers the major changes taking place in business and industry worldwide from leading digitally connected societies such as Finland, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, UK and the USA. The authors discuss the business relevance of such community related technologies and phenomena such as blogging, CANs, iPod, MMOGs, MVNOs, PVRs, Ringing Tones, SMS text messaging, swarming, VOD. This is the definitive business book on the impact of new technologies, not explaining how technology works, but showing what businesses need to do to make money in the new digitally converging environment. Communities Dominate Brands analyses early successes of engaging communities by global brands such as Adidas, Apple, Audi, BBC, Boeing, Coca Cola, eBay, Ford, Google, Guinness, Hush Puppies, Lonely Planet, MTV, Nokia, Orange, Philips, Red Bull, Sony, Tesco, Tony & Guy, Vodafone, etc. The lessons are amplified with insights from rough punishment by communities suffered by Hutchison/Three networks, Kryptonite locks, Mazda, the Philippines Government, etc. Fully indexed, impeccably researched with documented sources, offering over 50 current business examples and over a dozen case studies, Communities Dominate Brands is a hands-on practical business handbook on how to adjust marketing to deal with communities. With tools such as the Four C’s and Reachability, the authors provide a competitive head-start to all who want to achieve customer satisfaction and return business in the 21st century.
The foundation for an open source city
Explore the five elements of an open source city using Raleigh, North Carolina as a case study. See how the open source characteristics of collaboration, transparency, and participation are shaping the open government and open data movements. This book showcases the open source culture, government policies, and economic development happening in Raleigh and acts as a guide for other cities to pursue their open source city brand.
更多内容，请参考完整版开源之道共读导读与书评：开源哲学在开放城市中的良好应用 ———— 2020 世界阅读日读后感
市面上很多书都在讲述互联网如何改变了商业、办公环境，甚至政府部门。但这本书是一本更为根本性的书，也是这个领域的第一本：互联网如何改变着我们的集体智慧，以及我们理解世界的方式。举个例子，Polymath Project的数学家们是如何自发走到一起，在线协作解决问题的呢？当然这类问题只是这本书的一小部分。想要了解更多有关开放科学（也称“开源科学”，Open Science）的有趣故事，请翻开这本独一无二的书。
迈克尔•尼尔森（Michael Nielsen），澳大利亚量子计算科学家。研究领域从量子计算、开放科学到人工神经网络和深度学习。曾供职于洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室（Los Alamos National Laboratory，LANL；前称Y计划，是美国承担核子武器设计工作的两个实验室之一），2004年被授予澳大利亚“Youngest Academic”称号，并获昆士兰大学联邦基金。作者的TED演讲视频：http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_nielsen_open_science_now.html
Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers!
主题七 ： 开源之道共读成员自行选择部分
欧阳莹之（Sunny Y. Auyang），美籍华裔物理学家、科学学家，先后在上海、香港、美国等地就读小学、中学、大学,1972年获麻省理工学院物理学博士学位。毕业后曾在美国惠普公司供职，后在麻省理工学院从事研究工作20余年,1992年以来,她的研究兴趣转向对科学技术本质的哲学考察。除了本书外，还著有《量子场论如何可能?》（1995）、《复杂系统理论基础》（1998）、《日常生活和认知科学中的心智》（2000）等。
- Zoom.Quiet 大妈
更多内容，请参考完整版开源之道共读导读与书评：Episode 9:开源是一门工程学 ———— 图书共读交流